System of government
There are 3 levels of government in Australia—local, state and federal.
The 3 levels of government work together to ensure all Australians are able to live, work and participate fully in our community. The federal (or Commonwealth) government is responsible for general taxation and economic matters, and the larger issues like national security, communications and welfare. As well as providing services and collecting taxes, the federal government provides funding to both state and local government.
The 73 local governments in Queensland are responsible for making decisions on local, town or city matters—things like street signs and traffic control, libraries and rubbish collection. While local governments collect taxes in the form of rates, fees and fines to pay for the services they provide, they also receive money from both the state and federal government.
How government works in Queensland
The Queensland Constitution sets out the rules for how Queensland is governed and, as a representative democracy, the citizens of Queensland determine who governs through elections.
On this page:
- Queensland's Constitution
- Forming government
- Separation of powers
- Role of the Governor
- Queensland's Parliament
- Ministerial portfolios
- Government departments
- Statutory bodies
Our Constitution contains the set of rules for how Queensland is governed. For example, the Queensland Constitution provides for the law making powers in Queensland and sets out the role of the Governor in how government works.
History of our Constitution
Before the Constitution of Queensland 2001, Queensland did not have one constitutional document that outlined the State's constitutional arrangements. Matters of constitutional significance were contained in several Acts of Parliament, as well as throughout various other laws and documents.
After widespread community consultation, debate and analysis, the Constitution of Queensland 2001 and the Parliament of Queensland Act 2001 started operating on Queensland Day, 6 June 2002.
Our Constitution today
On 25 February 2010, the Constitution (Preamble) Amendment Act 2010 commenced, adding a preamble to the Constitution.
The preamble provides both context and meaning to our state's foundation law and was developed by the Parliamentary Law, Justice and Safety Committee through widespread community consultation.
The preamble provides an aspirational statement relating to key aspects of today's Queensland which will continue to be relevant for future generations.
The insertion of this preamble in Queensland's 150th anniversary year is an enduring acknowledgement of Queensland's past and expresses the future aspirations of Queenslanders.
The preamble also honours and recognises Queensland's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and their ancient and enduring cultures that provide a rich contribution to Queensland's community.
Queensland state elections are held about every three years, which is the maximum term of a Parliament under the Queensland Constitution.
Queensland is a representative democracy. This means citizens have the right to vote to elect the candidate they believe will best represent their interests in Parliament. Queensland has 89 electoral districts each with an elected representative in Parliament.
It is compulsory to vote in all Australian elections - local, state and federal. So all Australian citizens who are 18 years or older must register to vote.
The candidate who stands for election and wins the majority of votes in an electoral district becomes a Member of Parliament - MP for short. This is commonly referred to as winning a seat in Parliament.
Of the political parties contesting the election, the party, or group of parties working together, that win the majority of seats (at least 45) forms the government.
The party, or group of parties working together, that gain the next highest number of seats forms the opposition.
Separation of powers
Our system of government is modelled on the Westminster system after the British Parliament in the Palace of Westminster, London.
Under this system, there are three separate parts or arms of government:
- The Legislative Assembly (Parliament)
- The Executive (Cabinet and Executive Council), and
- The Judiciary (Courts).
This is a way of ensuring that no one branch of government has all the power.
Role of the Governor
The Governor is the representative in Queensland of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor conducts a range of constitutional and ceremonial duties including:
- summoning and dissolving Parliament
- granting Royal Assent to proposed laws (Bills) passed by Parliament
- presiding over meetings of the Executive Council, and
- issuing writs for state elections and elections for Queensland's federal Senators.
Queensland Parliament is the only state parliament in Australia without an Upper House. This makes it a 'unicameral' parliament, meaning that it has just one House - the Legislative Assembly.
Members of the Legislative Assembly make decisions about new laws and proposed changes to legislation.
As part of the democratic process, members also debate the key issues of the day and ask questions of Ministers.
To help the Premier make decisions that are in Queensland's best interests, a number of MPs are selected to become Ministers, forming the Cabinet.
Each Minister, including the Premier, heads up one or more 'portfolios' or areas of responsibility. Portfolio areas include health, education, transport and the arts, among others.
For every portfolio there are government departments and agencies whose job it is to implement policies and deliver services to Queenslanders.
Departments are led by Directors-General, who are effectively the Chief Executive Officers. Collectively these departments and agencies are known as the public sector or public service.
View a list of departments.
As well as the core government departments, there are statutory bodies.
These statutory bodies have been established under their own separate legislation, and are responsible for specific aspects of government administration. They include authorities, boards, commissions, committees, councils, corporations, trusts and tribunals. Most statutory bodies are administered by boards or committees, and all must report through the responsible Minister on their operations.
In addition, summaries of each statutory body are contained in the Register of Appointees to Queensland Government Bodies.For information on the Queensland Register of Appointees to Government Bodies please phone (07) 3224 5456