Flaviviruses (unspecified)

Flaviviruses in this category include Alfuy, Kokobera, Edge Hill, Stratford and New Mapoon viruses. These viruses are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Kokobera, Stratford, Edge Hill, and New Mapoon viruses are closely related. Human cases are uncommonly reported in Queensland.

Signs and Symptoms

Infection with these viruses usually presents as a self-limiting febrile illness characterised by headache, arthralgia, myalgia and lethargy, and sometimes accompanied by a rash. Full recovery however can take several months.

Most people become unwell within 3 to 11 days after being bitten by an infective mosquito.


There is no specific treatment for these infections. Treatment involves managing the symptoms that develop. Your doctor will advise on the best course of treatment.


This group of flaviviruses are transmitted to humans by a bite from an infective mosquito and cannot be transmitted directly from person to person. In Queensland the main types of mosquitoes implicated in the transmission of these viruses are Culex annulirostris and Aedes vigilax. Culex annulirostris breeds in permanent bodies of fresh water while Aedes vigilax (salt marsh mosquitoes) breed in salty pools in mangroves and salt marshes after flooding by spring tides and heavy rains.


There is no vaccine for these infections. The best prevention is to take precautions against being bitten by mosquitoes:

  • screen living and sleeping areas
  • use mosquito coils when outside
  • use insect repellents containing DEET or Picaridin (always follow the manufacturer's instructions) and wear protective, light coloured clothing where mosquitoes are present
  • avoid being outside during times of heavy infestation of mosquitoes, e.g. early evenings and mornings in the warmer months
  • if camping, sleep under a mosquito net.

Mosquito management programs are effective in controlling mosquitoes. Health officers from most local councils and health departments work together to develop and implement mosquito management programs.

Help and assistance

For more information:

  • See your local doctor.
  • Call 13 HEALTH (13 43 25 84) to get qualified health advice 24/7 for the cost of a local call.
  • Contact the nearest public health unit.