Air quality monitoring of coal dust in rail corridors
A review of air quality monitoring studies in rail corridors and around rail systems in southern Queensland has shown that while coal dust and the influence of coal trains on dust levels has been detected, the levels of total dust (including coal dust) are well below air quality objectives for the protection of human health and amenity impacts. Additional dust mitigation measures implemented by all coal companies have been, and continue to be, effective in reducing the loss of coal dust from loaded rail wagons during transport.
Monitoring has shown no evidence of the passage of coal trains having an adverse impact on dust levels adjacent to the rail corridor. Most rail transport-related dust comes from re-suspension of particles from ground surfaces within the rail corridor by the air turbulence generated by passing trains of all types, not just coal trains.
Dust (from all sources) settling out adjacent to rail corridors in urban areas is made up primarily of mineral dusts (soil and rock) at levels of 50% or more. While early dust samples contained up to 20% coal, this has declined following implementation of the additional dust mitigation measures by coal producers and transporters. Coal dust is now rarely detected in dust samples taken adjacent to the rail corridor and any coal present comes predominantly from re-suspension of coal particles already in the soil in the rail corridor rather than direct loss from coal wagons.
Other dust types, typically found in the dust samples, include up to 10% black rubber dust from motor vehicle tyre wear, and biological dusts (plant and insect fragments) at 10–30%.
Below is a guide to coal dust and the monitoring that is taking place along the South West–Metropolitan rail corridor.
Download the rail corridor coal dust monitoring fact sheet (PDF, 71KB) for more information.
Air quality monitoring reports
An investigation of air quality in the Tennyson community adjacent to the rail corridor used by trains hauling coal from West Moreton coal mines to the Port of Brisbane was conducted by the then Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA) over the period 5 September to 5 October 2012. The investigation was commissioned by the former Department of Environment and Heritage Protection to investigate concerns raised by local residents about dust impacts from uncovered coal wagons.
A copy of the Tennyson Dust Monitoring Investigation report can be found at Tennyson Dust Monitoring Investigation Report.
Western–Metropolitan Rail Corridor
The Queensland Resources Council commissioned a coal dust monitoring program in response to coal dust complaints associated with rail transport along the Western–Metropolitan rail system, which is used by trains hauling coal from mines in the Clarence–Moreton and Surat basins in southern Queensland to the Port of Brisbane. The independent monitoring program is being conducted by scientists within the Queensland Government. The monitoring program was initially to be conducted in three stages:
- pre-veneering monitoring (March to April 2013),
- post-veneering monitoring (May to June 2013), and
- continuous monitoring program over a period of 12 months.
However, the continuous monitoring stage which commenced in February 2014 has been extended and is currently funded until March 2018.
Pre and post-veneering monitoring programs (Stages 1 and 2)
Read the final Stages 1 and 2 report, Western–Metropolitan Rail Systems Coal Dust Monitoring Program (PDF, 3.4MB).
The investigation acquired data to assess both health and dust nuisance impacts in the community, together with a determination of the contribution of coal particles to overall dust levels.
The monitoring results showed that ambient particle concentrations complied with ambient air quality objectives at all rail corridor monitoring sites during both the pre- and post-veneering monitoring periods. The major influence on the levels of particles was not rail transport emissions, but other urban particle emission sources.
Insoluble dust deposition rates did not exceed the trigger levels for dust nuisance during both pre- and post-veneering monitoring.
Coal particles typically accounted for about 10% of the total surface coverage in the deposited dust samples, with the amount present in individual samples ranging from trace levels up to 20% of the total surface coverage.
A general trend was observed toward decreasing dust deposition rates and lower levels of coal dust in the deposited dust samples at most monitoring sites following the implementation of rail wagon veneering.
Queensland Health has concluded that, for people living along the rail corridor, the overall dust concentrations from all particle sources measured during the investigation are unlikely to result in any additional adverse health effects.
The post-veneering monitoring report was peer reviewed by Dr. Neville Bofinger, retired member of the School of Natural Resource Sciences at the Queensland University of Technology and one of Australia’s leading air quality scientists. The peer review (PDF, 188KB) concluded that:
‘The study used appropriate methodology, experimental design and data analysis to reach its conclusions. The report is comprehensive and logical and is appropriately referenced. Conclusions which are drawn in the report are supported by the data.’
Several insightful comments were made by the peer reviewer, which were seen as beneficial to incorporate in the final report. A table showing the changes made to the report following peer review is provided in responses to the recommendations of the Independent Peer Review (PDF, 236KB).
Current continuous monitoring program (Stage 3)
Continuous monitoring on the rail corridor is now being conducted at the Cannon Hill Railway Station on the Brisbane Metropolitan rail line.
The purpose of this monitoring is to validate the effectiveness of coal dust mitigation measures being taken by the coal producers and transporters as outlined in the South West System Coal Dust Management Plan (PDF, 9.85MB), and to confirm that dust levels, particularly coal dust levels, continue to meet environmental standards.
The monitoring at this site involves:
- continuous measurement of particles less than 10 micrometres in size (PM10)and particles less than 2.5 micrometres in size (PM2.5) for direct comparison against guidelines for protection of human health
- continuous measurement of total suspended particles (TSP) for direct comparison against recommended guidelines for avoidance of dust nuisance impacts
- 30-day samples of deposited dust to determine the amount and composition of dust settling out adjacent to the rail corridor
- continuous measurement of wind conditions to assist with identification of sources of particles.
Deposited dust sampling is also being carried out at Fairfield and Toowoomba.
The continuous PM10, PM2.5 and TSP monitoring data is available via the Queensland Government live air data service. The website data is updated hourly.
Both the continuous and monthly dust deposition data is reported in the South East Queensland monthly air quality bulletins. The bulletins are available from the website two months after the end of the reporting month.
The monitoring results showed that ambient particle concentrations predominantly complied with ambient air quality criteria for protection of human health and avoidance of amenity degradation at Cannon Hill over the three year period. None of the very infrequent exceedances of air quality criteria (not more than one day per year for each particle fraction) were caused by rail transport.
Re-suspension of particles from the rail track ballast and dry ground within the rail corridor by the air turbulence generated by passing trains of all types, not just coal haulage, was identified as the main air quality impact from rail transport.
Insoluble dust deposition rates did not exceed the trigger levels for dust nuisance at Cannon Hill and Fairfield. In Toowoomba, both occasions when the dust nuisance trigger level was exceeded were attributed to vegetation-related sources.
During 2015 and 2016, coal dust was rarely detected in deposited dust samples outside of the drier months from June to October. This is consistent with the source of the coal particles being predominantly re-suspension of coal particles present in the rail track ballast and soil in the rail corridor as the ground dries out rather than direct loss from rail wagons.
The monitoring has demonstrated a very significant and continuing reduction in the mass of coal depositing from the air from the levels measured in the pre-veneering period before the coal dust management plan measures were implemented. Across the rail system as a whole, it is estimated that the average deposition rate of coal dust has fallen by more than 90 per cent.
The monitoring has shown that implementation of the coal dust management plan measures, including load profiling and veneering, has been and continues to be highly effective in reducing the loss of coal dust from loaded rail wagons during transport.
Dr. Neville Bofinger was again engaged to peer review the 2014 to 2015 monitoring report. His peer review (PDF, 43KB) concluded that:
‘The study used appropriate methodology and monitoring design. The report is comprehensive, logical and properly referenced. The weight of evidence confirms that the conclusions in the report are valid and well supported by the data.’
The monitoring at Cannon Hill, Fairfield and Toowoomba remains ongoing (currently funded through to March 2018).
Jondaryan Rail Loading Facility
Dust monitoring was conducted at Jondaryan between March 2014 and August 2016. The Jondaryan site was located on the eastern side of Jondaryan township, and was installed in response to community concerns about the impacts of dust emissions from the Jondaryan Rail Loading Facility. The Jondaryan Rail Loading Facility is a bulk handling facility for transporting coal by train from the Darling Downs to the Port of Brisbane.
A preliminary report (PDF, 4.5MB) on the monitoring at Jondaryan over the period March 2014 to April 2015 is available.
Particle measurements during this period showed that ambient PM2.5 concentrations in the Jondaryan community complied with human health protection criteria, while TSP and PM10 concentrations exceeded dust nuisance and human health protection guidelines respectively on a number of occasions over this period. Levels of deposited dust exceeded the dust nuisance guideline for one monthly sample only during the reporting period.
Windblown dust was identified as the main contributor to particle level exceedances at the Jondaryan dust monitoring station. However, coal dust emissions from operations at Jondaryan Rail Load-out were not found to result in exceedances of the Environmental Protection Policy (Air) 2008 in the absence of emissions from other dust sources.
Dust emissions from road works on the Warrego Highway between Jondaryan and the rail loading facility affected the monitoring results at times between July and December 2014. For this reason, the original monitoring program timeframe was extended until August 2016. A final report covering the full monitoring period is being prepared.
Port of Brisbane
Information on air quality monitoring and a summary of particulate matter results covering the Port of Brisbane is also available. The Port Coal Dust Management Plan can also be accessed from this website.
Queensland Bulk Handling
Queensland Bulk Handling (QBH) is a coal export terminal located within the Port Of Brisbane. QBH stockpiles large quantities of coal within the facility and is required to meet the conditions specified by its environmental approval. QBH’s website provides further information on their dust management processes and monitoring program.
Coal rail contacts
Central Queensland coal rail network: Aurizon Limited
Telephone: 13 23 32
South West System coal rail network (SEQ): Queensland Rail:
Telephone: 13 16 17
Queensland Resources Council South West System Coal Dust Management Plan development and implementation; implementation of ongoing coal dust monitoring program.
Telephone: (07) 3295 9560
Coal terminal and port contacts
Adani Terminal 1
Telephone: (07) 3223 4800
North Queensland Bulk Ports Corporation
Telephone: 1300 129 255
Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal
Telephone: (07) 4943 8444
Hay Point Services Coal Terminal
Telephone: 1800 078 797
North Queensland Bulk Ports Corporation
Telephone: 1300 129 255
Port of Gladstone
Gladstone Ports Corporation (Operator RG Tanna & Barney Point Coal Terminals)
Email: via Gladstone Ports Corporation website
Telephone: 1800 063 408
Port of Brisbane
Queensland Bulk Handling Pty Ltd (Terminal Operator)
Telephone: (07) 3107 4900
Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd (Port Manager)
Telephone: (07) 3258 4888
Air quality regulator
Department of Environment and Science
Telephone: Permit and Licence Management on 1300 130 372